POTRAVNÍ DOPLŇKY S PŘÍMÝM VLIVEM NA SPORTOVNÍ VÝKON V SOUČASNÉ SVĚTOVÉ LITERATUŘE, ČÁST 1: BIKARBONÁT, BETA-ALANIN

Zdeněk VILIKUS, Radka PETRÁKOVÁ-DOLEŽALOVÁ, Pavel KYSEL, Simona MAJOROVÁ

Abstrakt


Souhrn

Úvod: Suplementace bikarbonátem k dosažení lepšího sportovního výkonu je považována za účinnou i v dnešní době. Avšak vzhledem k nutnosti aplikovat bikarbonát v relativně vysokých dávkách a rovněž vzhledem k výskytu častých nežádoucích vedlejších účinků hledali sportovci i odborníci na sportovní výživu jiné alternativy. Za nejlepší alternativu bikarbonátu je v současnosti považován ß-alanin. Beta-alanin se v posledních dvou dekádách stává běžnou praxí u vrcholových sportovců a také se stal objektem zkoumání odborníků na celém světě. Doplněním ß-alaninu dochází k vzestupu koncentrace karnosinu ve svalových buňkách, což vede k oddálení svalové únavy v důsledku metabolické acidózy. Hlavní mechanismus oddálení únavy je připisován intracelulárním pufrovacím schopnostem ß-alaninu resp. karnosinu, které jsou nezávislé na bikarbonátovém systému. Cíl: Cílem práce bylo shrnout a objektivně zhodnotit efekt suplementace bikarbonátu a ß-alaninu na sportovní výkon na základě nejnovějších poznatků světového písemnictví. Metodika: Použili jsme dvě databáze odborných prací Google Scholar a Web of Science. Na základě klíčových slov jsme vyhledávali práce od roku 2000 do současnosti. Vybírali jsme jen dvojitě zaslepené studie s kontrolní skupinou a placebem. Výsledky: Nalezli jsme celkem 143 prací požadované kvality a 8 souborných článků typu review. Nejkonzistentnějším pozitivním účinkem po aplikaci ß–alaninu bylo snížení nervosvalové únavy při krátkodobé intenzivní zátěži trvající 30 sekund až 10 minut díky oddálení metabolické acidózy. Doporučená denní dávka (DDD) ß-alaninu je 1,6 - 6,4 g denně. Jediným nežádoucím účinkem ß-alaninu jsou parestesie. Proto se doporučuje rozdělit DDD do více dávek. Závěry: Bikarbonát i ß-alanin mohou přímo zvýšit sportovní výkon oddálením metabolické acidózy a tím i svalové únavy. Příčinou rozdílného individuálního účinku ß-alaninové suplementace je značná individuální responzibilita lidského organizmu na suplementaci tímto doplňkem stravy.

Klíčová slova: bikarbonát, ß-alanin, karnosin, sportovní výkon

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